Welding Technology | Digital Revolution



Arc Blow
The deflection of an electric arc from its normal path because of magnetic forces.

Arc Brazing
A brazing process wherein the heat is obtained from an electric arc formed between the base metal and an electrode, or between two electrodes.

Arc Length
The distance between the tip of the electrode and the weld puddle.

Base Metal
The metal to be welded or cut. In alloys, it is the metal present in the largest proportion.

Bead Weld
A type of weld composed of one or more string or weave beads deposited on an unbroken surface.

Constant Voltage (CV)
This type of welding machine output maintains a relatively stable, consistent voltage regardless of the amperage output. It results in a relatively flat volt-amp curve.

Deposited Metal
Filler metal that has been added during a welding operation.

Deposition Efficiency
The ratio of the weight of deposited metal to the net weight of electrodes consumed, exclusive of stubs.

Electrode Force

Dynamic- In spot, seam, and projection welding, the force (pounds) between the electrodes during the actual welding cycle.

Theoretical- In spot, seam, and projection welding, the force, neglecting friction and inertia, available at the electrodes of a resistance welding machine by virtue of the initial force application and the theoretical mechanical advantage of the system.

Static- In spot, seam, and projection welding, the force between the electrodes under welding conditions, but with no current flowing and no movement in the welding machine.

Face Reinforcement
Reinforcement of weld at the side of the joint from which welding was done.

Face Of Weld
The exposed surface of a weld, made by an arc or gas welding process, on the side from which welding was done.

Faying Surface
That surface of a member that is in contact with another member to which it is joined.

Globular Transfer
Named for "globs" of weld metal transferring across the arc in a gravity feed. Droplets across the arc are usually larger than the electrode diameter.  It does not produce a very smooth weld bead appearance, and some spatter can occur. Usually limited to the flat and horizontal welding positions, and not used on thin metals.

The heating and quenching of certain iron-base alloys from a temperature above the critical temperature range for the purpose of producing a hardness superior to that obtained when the alloy is not quenched. This term is usually restricted to the formation of martensite.

Any process of increasing the hardness of metal by suitable treatment, usually involving heating and cooling.

Heat Affected Zone
That portion of the base metal whose structure or properties have been changed by the heat of welding or cutting.

Impact Test
A test in which one or more blows are suddenly applied to a specimen. The results are usually expressed in terms of energy absorbed or number of blows of a given intensity required to break the specimen.

Induction Welding
A process in which fusion is produced by heat obtained from resistance of the work to the flow of induced electric current, with or without the application of pressure.

The portion of a structure in which separate base metal parts are joined.

The space from which metal has been removed by a cutting process.

The lowest temperature at which a metal or an alloy is completely liquid.

Multi-Impulse Welding
The making of spot, projection, and upset welds by more than one impulse of current. When alternating current is used each impulse may consist of a fraction of a cycle or a number of cycles.

Neutral Flame
A gas flame in which the oxygen and acetylene volumes are balanced and both gases are completely burned.

Oxidizing Flame
An oxyacetylene flame in which there is an excess of oxygen. The unburned excess tends to oxidize the weld metal.

A gas that has been heated to the point where it will conduct electricity.

Plasma Welding (PW)
is an arc welding process similar to gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). The electric arc is formed between an electrode (which is usually but not always made of sintered tungsten) and the workpiece. The key difference from GTAW is that in PAW, by positioning the electrode within the body of the torch, the plasma arc can be separated from the shielding gas envelope. The plasma is then forced through a fine-bore copper nozzle which constricts the arc and the plasma exits the orifice at high velocities (approaching the speed of sound) and a temperature approaching 20,000 °C.

A type of welding that uses a transfer method in which as little as one droplet of metal forms on the end of the electrode at a time. Pulse welding requires the highest welder settings.

Pulsation Welding
A spot, projection or stream welding process in which the welding current is interrupted one or more times without the release of pressure or change of location of electrodes.

Pulsed Spray (pulsed MIG)
A modified spray transfer process that produces no spatter because the wire does not touch the weld puddle. Applications best suited for pulsed MIG are those currently using the short circuit transfer method for welding steel, 14 gauge (1.8 mm) and up.

The sudden cooling of heated metal with oil, water, or compressed air.

Resistance Welding
A group of welding processes in which fusion is produced by heat obtained from resistance to the flow of electric current in a circuit of which the workpiece is a part and by the application of pressure.

Reverse Polarity
The arrangement of direct current arc welding leads in which the work is the negative pole and the electrode is the positive pole of the welding arc.

Rockwell Hardness Test
In this test a machine measures hardness by determining the depth of penetration of a penetrator into the specimen under certain arbitrary fixed conditions of test. The penetrator may be either a steel ball or a diamond spherocone.

Short Circuit Transfer
A type of metal transfer in which the electrode produces a short circuit and high current when it touches the workpiece. The high current level causes a violent transfer of metal, which creates the weld.

Spray Transfer
A type of metal transfer in which molten filler metal is propelled axially across the arc in small droplets.

Tandem MIG
A dual wire GMAW (gas metal arc welding) process that is used in automated welding applications to improve welding productivity. The process uses two welding power sources and two wire feeders acting in tandem to deliver two wire electrodes through a single welding torch.

TIG (tungsten inert gas)
This welding process joins metals by heating them with a tungsten electrode which should not become part of the completed weld. Filler metal is sometimes used and argon inert gas or inert gas mixtures are used for shielding.


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